Source code for pgsu

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""Connect to an existing PostgreSQL cluster as the `postgres` superuser and execute SQL commands.


from __future__ import absolute_import
import logging
import traceback
import os
import platform

    import subprocess32 as subprocess
except ImportError:
    import subprocess

from enum import IntEnum
import click

    None,  # 'localhost' causes psql to connect via method 'host' instead of 'local'
    'port': 5432,
    'user': 'postgres',
    'password': None,
    'database': 'template1',

# By default, try "sudo" only on Ubuntu
DEFAULT_TRY_SUDO = platform.system(
) == 'Linux' and 'Ubuntu' in platform.version()
DEFAULT_UNIX_USER = 'postgres'

LOGGER = logging.getLogger('pgsu')

[docs]class PostgresConnectionMode(IntEnum): """Describe mode of connecting to postgres.""" DISCONNECTED = 0 PSYCOPG = 1 PSQL = 2
class PGSU: """ Connect to an existing PostgreSQL cluster as the `postgres` superuser and execute SQL commands. Tries to use psycopg2 with a fallback to psql subcommands (using ``sudo su`` to run as postgres user). Simple Example:: pgsu = PGSU() pgsu.execute("CREATE USER testuser PASSWORD 'testpw'") Complex Example:: pgsu = PGSU(interactive=True, dsn={'port': 5433}) pgsu.execute("CREATE USER testuser PASSWORD 'testpw'") Note: In PostgreSQL * you cannot drop databases you are currently connected to * 'template0' is the unmodifiable template database (which you *cannot* connect to) * 'template1' is the modifiable template database (which you *can* connect to) """ def __init__(self, interactive=False, quiet=True, dsn=None, determine_setup=True): """Store postgres connection info. :param interactive: use True for verdi commands :param quiet: use False to show warnings/exceptions :param dsn: psycopg dictionary containing keys like 'host', 'user', 'port', 'database'. It is sufficient to provide only those values that deviate from the defaults. :param determine_setup: Whether to determine setup upon instantiation. You may set this to False and use the 'determine_setup()' method instead. :param unix_user: UNIX user to try to "become", if connection via psycopg2 fails """ self.interactive = interactive if not quiet: ch = logging.StreamHandler() ch.setLevel(logging.INFO) LOGGER.addHandler(ch) self.connection_mode = PostgresConnectionMode.DISCONNECTED self.setup_fail_counter = 0 self.setup_max_tries = 1 self.dsn = DEFAULT_DSN.copy() if dsn is not None: self.dsn.update(dsn) # Used on Ubuntu only! self.try_sudo = DEFAULT_TRY_SUDO self.unix_user = DEFAULT_UNIX_USER if determine_setup: self.determine_setup() def execute(self, command, **kwargs): """Execute postgres command using determined connection mode. :param command: A psql command line as a str :param kwargs: will be forwarded to _execute_... function """ # Use self.dsn as default kwargs, update with provided dsn dsn = self.dsn.copy() dsn.update(kwargs) if self.connection_mode == PostgresConnectionMode.PSYCOPG: return _execute_psyco(command, dsn) if self.connection_mode == PostgresConnectionMode.PSQL: return _execute_su_psql(command, dsn) raise ConnectionError( 'Could not connect to PostgreSQL server using dsn={}.\n'.format( dsn) + 'Consider providing connection parameters via PGSU(dsn={...}).') def determine_setup(self): """Determine how to connect as the postgres superuser. Depending on how postgres is set up, psycopg2 can be used to create dbs and db users, otherwise a subprocess has to be used that executes psql as an os user with appropriate permissions. Note: We aim to connect as a superuser (typically 'postgres') with privileges to manipulate (create/drop) databases and database users. :returns success: True, if connection could be established. :rtype success: bool """ dsn = self.dsn.copy() # Try to connect as a postgres superuser via psycopg2 (equivalent to using psql). LOGGER.debug('Trying to connect via "psycopg2"...') for pg_user in set([self.dsn.get('user'), None]): dsn['user'] = pg_user # First try the host specified (works if 'host' has setting 'trust' in pg_hba.conf). # Then try local connection (works if 'local' has setting 'trust' in pg_hba.conf). # Then try 'host' localhost via TCP/IP. for pg_host in set([self.dsn.get('host'), None, 'localhost']): dsn['host'] = pg_host if _try_connect_psycopg(**dsn): self.dsn = dsn self.connection_mode = PostgresConnectionMode.PSYCOPG return True # Ubuntu uses setting 'peer' for 'local', i.e. we need to be UNIX user 'postgres' in order to connect as # database user 'postgres'. # Check if 'sudo' is available and try to become 'postgres'. if self.try_sudo: LOGGER.debug('Trying to connect by becoming the "%s" unix user...', self.unix_user) if _sudo_exists(): dsn = self.dsn.copy() dsn['user'] = self.unix_user if _try_su_psql(interactive=self.interactive, dsn=dsn): self.dsn = dsn self.connection_mode = PostgresConnectionMode.PSQL return True else: 'Could not find `sudo` to become the the "%s" unix user.', self.unix_user) self.setup_fail_counter += 1 return self._no_setup_detected() def _no_setup_detected(self): """Print a warning message and calls the failed setup callback :returns: False, if no successful try. """ LOGGER.warning('Unable to autodetect postgres setup.') if self.interactive and self.setup_fail_counter <= self.setup_max_tries: self.dsn = prompt_for_dsn(self.dsn) return self.determine_setup() return False @property def is_connected(self): return self.connection_mode in (PostgresConnectionMode.PSYCOPG, PostgresConnectionMode.PSQL) def prompt_for_dsn(dsn): """ Prompt interactively for postgres database connection details. :return: dictionary with the keys: host, port, database, user, password """ click.echo('Please provide PostgreSQL connection info:') # Note: Using '' as the prompt default is necessary to allow users to leave the field empty. # Using `None` in the dictionary is necessary in order for psycopg2 to interpret the value as not provided. dsn_new = {} dsn_new['host'] = click.prompt( 'postgres host', default=dsn.get('host') or "", type=str) or None dsn_new['port'] = click.prompt( 'postgres port', default=dsn.get('port'), type=int) or None dsn_new['user'] = click.prompt( 'postgres super user', default=dsn.get('user'), type=str) or None dsn_new['database'] = click.prompt( 'database', default=dsn.get('database'), type=str) or None dsn_new['password'] = click.prompt( 'postgres password of {}'.format(dsn_new['user']), #hide_input=True, # this breaks the input mocking in the tests. could make this configurable instead type=str, default=dsn.get('password') or '') or None return dsn_new def _try_connect_psycopg(**kwargs): """ try to start a psycopg2 connection. :return: True if successful, False otherwise """ from psycopg2 import connect # pylint: disable=import-outside-toplevel success = False try: conn = connect(**kwargs) success = True conn.close() except Exception: # pylint: disable=broad-except LOGGER.debug('Unable to connect via psycopg') LOGGER.debug(traceback.format_exc()) return success def _execute_psyco(command, dsn): """ executes a postgres commandline through psycopg2 :param command: A psql command line as a str :param dsn: will be forwarded to psycopg2.connect """ import psycopg2 # pylint: disable=import-outside-toplevel output = None with psycopg2.connect(**dsn) as conn: conn.autocommit = True with conn.cursor() as cursor: cursor.execute(command) if cursor.description is not None: output = cursor.fetchall() # see conn.close() return output def _sudo_exists(): """ Check that the sudo command can be found :return: True if successful, False otherwise """ try: subprocess.check_output(['sudo', '-V']) return True except (subprocess.CalledProcessError, OSError): LOGGER.debug('Failed to run "sudo" in a subprocess') LOGGER.debug(traceback.format_exc()) return False def _try_su_psql(interactive, dsn): """ Try to run psql in a subprocess as a different UNIX user. :return: True if successful, False otherwise """ try: _execute_su_psql(r'\q', interactive=interactive, dsn=dsn, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT) return True except subprocess.CalledProcessError: LOGGER.debug('Failed to run "psql" in a subprocess as user %s', dsn.get('user')) LOGGER.debug(traceback.format_exc()) return False def _execute_su_psql(command, dsn, interactive=False, stderr=None): """ Executes an SQL command via ``psql`` as another system user in a subprocess. Tries to "become" the user specified in ``dsn`` (i.e. interpreted as UNIX system user) and run psql in a subprocess. :param command: A psql command line as a str :param dsn: connection details to forward to psql, signature as in psycopg2.connect :param interactive: If False, `sudo` won't ask for a password and fail if one is required. :param stderr: Allows redirection of stderr for subprocess call """ psql_option_str = '' database = dsn.get('database') if database: psql_option_str += '-d {}'.format(database) # to do: Forward password to psql; ignore host only when the password is None. # pylint: disable=fixme # Note: There is currently no known postgresql setup that needs this, though # password = dsn.get('password') host = dsn.pop('host', 'localhost') if host and host != 'localhost': psql_option_str += ' -h {}'.format(host) else: LOGGER.debug( "Found host 'localhost' but dropping '-h localhost' option for psql " 'since this may cause psql to switch to password-based authentication.' ) port = dsn.get('port') if port: psql_option_str += ' -p {}'.format(port) # Note: This is *both* the UNIX user to become *and* the database user user = dsn.get('user') # Build command line sudo_cmd = ['sudo'] if not interactive: sudo_cmd += ['-n'] su_cmd = ['su', user, '-c'] psql_cmd = [ 'psql {opt} -tc {cmd}'.format(cmd=escape_for_bash(command), opt=psql_option_str) ] sudo_su_psql = sudo_cmd + su_cmd + psql_cmd "Trying to become '%s' user. You may be asked for your 'sudo' password.", user) result = subprocess.check_output(sudo_su_psql, stderr=stderr) result = result.decode('utf-8').strip().split(os.linesep) result = [i for i in result if i] return result def escape_for_bash(str_to_escape): """ This function takes any string and escapes it in a way that bash will interpret it as a single string. Explanation: At the end, in the return statement, the string is put within single quotes. Therefore, the only thing that I have to escape in bash is the single quote character. To do this, I substitute every single quote ' with '"'"' which means: First single quote: exit from the enclosing single quotes Second, third and fourth character: "'" is a single quote character, escaped by double quotes Last single quote: reopen the single quote to continue the string Finally, note that for python I have to enclose the string '"'"' within triple quotes to make it work, getting finally: the complicated string found below. """ escaped_quotes = str_to_escape.replace("'", """'"'"'""") return "'{}'".format(escaped_quotes)